Before the arrival of Gustav Heinrich Ralph von Koenigswald or known by the name of GHR. von Koenigswald, hilly area (dome) Sangiran known only as barren hills. Koenigswald is the researcher who discovered a number of tools and flakes of rock jaspis chalcedony in 1934 at Sangiran area. The findings of the means of ancient human remains in large numbers (about 1,000 more than stone tools), known as the “Sangiran Flakes-industry”.
The initial finding was followed by the next important findings, namely fossilized lower jaw (mandible) is estimated as Meganthropus paleojavanicus fossils, and fossils of Pithecanthropus erectus, known as “Java man”. This important discovery instantly attract other researchers to search for traces of ancient life in the hill Sangiran. Subsequent studies involving experts from Indonesia, such as T. Jacob and S. Sartono who began excavations around the 1960’s. National Archaeological Research Center (Research Center for Arkenas) and the Yogyakarta Archaeological Center also plays a major role in research related to the ancient fossils of Sangiran.
Until now, it was revealed that about 65 percent of Indonesia’s ancient human fossils found at the excavation site Sangiran. This amount was included about 50 percent of the population of the taxon Homo erectus in the world. That is why many foreign researchers are interested to visit and examine the site of this leading. Interestingly, Sangiran dome area (Sangiran Dome) which has an area of about 56 square kilometers, covering three districts in Sragen, proved to be a very rich site. This area is not just a place of the discovery of ancient human fossils, but also a variety of fossils of living creatures and plants are diverse, and the layers of soil that “open” in nature which is very useful for geological studies.
Sangiran dome Cemoro passed by the time that make this region a natural erosion, so that the layers of soil that was around 2 million years to 200 thousand years ago, or a layer of soil from the late Pliocene to late middle Pleistocene, it can be seen. Not only that, each layer also stores information about past lives are recorded by the type of soil, rocks, plants, fossils of living creatures, as well as the equipment used. Not only are the fossils of living creatures on land, Sangiran region also save thousands of fossils of sea creatures, as the region in millions of years ago is a stretch of seabed. Because of geological activity, the area was later increased to plateau.
To protect this pubakala site, the government set Sangiran area as a cultural heritage is marked by the issuance of the Decree of the Minister of Education and Culture No. 070/0/1977, March 5, 1977. The enthusiasm of the international community was seen by dikukuhkannya Sangiran site as one of the world heritage (world heritage) in 1996. Determination was carried out by UNESCO’s World Heritage Committee at the 20th anniversary of this organization in the city of Merida, Mexico, with serial number 593.
In addition to being the location of research, since 1986, the region built a museum to accommodate the interest of travelers find traces of early man. Sangiran Archeological Museum was inaugurated on August 17, 1988 to showcase the various findings of ancient human fossils and tools found in this region.
Archaeological Museum Sangiran or commonly abbreviated Sangiran Museum is a museum with a collection of fossils and archaeological objects reaches about 13,809 collections, so it is considered as the most complete archaeological museum in Indonesia. Of the thousands of fossils, about 2934 fossils stored in Sangiran Museum’s exhibition space, while 10,875 other fossils are stored in the warehouse. The museum is very useful to know or deepen knowledge relating to the theory of evolution, the science of anthropology, archeology, geology, and paleoanthropology.
Visiting the museum is located at Kalijambe, Sragen Regency, you’ll find buildings with architectural joglo house built on an area of 16,675 square meters. The building is divided into several rooms, including an exhibition hall or main room, laboratory space, conference rooms, display space underground, audio visual room, and storage of fossils.
Entering the main hall, visitors will have complete information about the process of excavation carried out a successful von Koenigswald found Pithecantropus erectus fossils or also known as the great apes to walk upright. Besides Pithecantropus erectus, the museum is also showing off a replica of the other fossils, such as Pithecanthropus mojokertensis (Pithecantropus robustus), Meganthropus palaeojavanicus, Pithecanthropus erectus, Homo soloensis, Homo European Neanderthals, Homo Neanderthals Asia, and Homo sapiens. Although only a replica of the original fossil, but the replica was made in detail and close to its original form. The original fossil is currently stored at the Museum of Geology of Bandung and the Laboratory of paleoanthropology UGM, Yogyakarta.
In addition to the hominid, also exhibited a variety of ancient animal fossils, including fossils of ancient elephants Elephas namadicus, Stegodon trigonocephalus, Mastodon sp, buffalo (Bubalus palaeokarabau), tiger (Felis palaeojavanica), pig (Sus sp), rhinoceros (Rhinocerus sondaicus), cattle or bateng (Bovidae), deer (Cervus sp), and hippopotamus (Hippopotamus sp.) There are also fossil animals comprising water crocodile (Crocodillus sp), fish, crabs, shark teeth, molluscs (Pelecypoda and Gastropoda), and a turtle (Chelonia sp.)
To give an idea of how early human life, this museum provides a diorama depicting ancient human statue in the middle of the ecosystem. We can see facial features, body shape, and custom environments to gain an understanding of their ways. In addition, the display also a variety of stone tools, including tools flakes and blades, shaved and auger, square axes, stone balls and ax-penetak perimbas. The tools of the archaic period was used by early humans to kill animals, cut the meat or plants, and serves also as a weapon. In this museum, visitors are also shown several types of rock that consists of rock meteorites / taktit, kalesdon, diatome, agate, and ametis.
In addition to the draw of knowledge through the fossil and archaeological objects, the tourists can also deepen their knowledge by watching movies about historical sites and visual images Sangiran in audio-visual room. The film meggambarkan process of excavation and description of early human life that walked upright with a 20-minute duration.
Archaeological Museum is located in the village of Sangiran Krikilan Kalijambe, Sragen, Central Java Province, Indonesia. While the Sangiran site itself (Sangiran Dome) is located in three districts in Sragen Regency, such as Sub Gemolong, Kalijambe, and Plupuh.
Sangiran site is located approximately 17 kilometers north of the city of Solo. From the city of Solo, tourists can along the path to get to the Museum Kalijambe Sangiran. When departing from Yogyakarta, then you have to Solo, then follow the path north to Kalijambe-Sangiran. If departing from Semarang, you can cover the distance of about 100 kilometers, through Purwodadi, Kalijambe, then Sangiran. Another route, from Semarang get past Salatiga, Karang Gede (Boyolali), Gemolong, Kalijambe, then Sangiran. Meanwhile, when departing from Singapore, tourists have to travel about 280 miles, past the Madison-Ngawi path, then enter and proceed towards the path of Sragen Kalijambe-Sangiran.
Tickets to enter the site and the Museum of Antiquities Sangiran Sangiran is different. To enter the Archeological Museum Sangiran, tourists are charged only Rp 1.500, 00 per tourist. However, before entering the museum, tourists will be subject to a variety of other cost components, namely an entrance fee of the site area and parking fees. The cost of a ticket to enter the area of Sangiran site differentiated between domestic tourists and foreign tourists. Domestic tourists subjected tickets for Rp 2.000, 00, while foreign tourists amounted to Rp 7.500, 00.
For those of you who brought the vehicle is also subject to parking fees, ie Rp 500, 00 for motorcycles, Rp 1,000, 00 for cars, and Rp 5.000, 00 for buses. When about to conduct research, then subjected to a surcharge of Rp 50.000,00 per person. In addition to these cost components, tourists who want to take advantage of information through audio-visual room (at least for groups of about 25 people), then there is a surcharge of USD $ 2000.00 per person.
To improve services to the tourists, in the area of Sangiran site has built a tower of view. The tourists can enjoy the beauty and panoramic beauty of the surrounding area from a height Sangiran through the viewing tower. If you want more clear, the tourists can use the telescope for lease. Not only that, Sangiran site has also been equipped with audio visual facilities, a guide (guide), playground for children, and facilities for mini car (mini cars) that can be used by tourists or researchers who want to tour the Sangiran site.
In this place also has provided an inn that can be used by tourists and researchers. Wisma joglo of house has been equipped with various facilities, such as lobbying or marquee complete with the tables and chairs for meetings, representative rooms, family rooms, as well as adequate parking. Travelers who want to go home with a souvenir of the archaic age to buy it at souvenir stalls around the site. Souvenirs typical of this ancient village mostly imitation ancient human tools of stone, as well as mini sculptures Pithecanthropus erectus.